馬拉拉 爭取女性教育權利

最近的國際新聞都圍繞著阿富汗,武裝組織塔利班攻入阿富汗首都喀布爾後,國際社會擔心阿富汗的女性權利會再次受到打壓。1996年,塔利班在阿富汗掌權後,禁止十歲以上的女孩上學,也嚴禁女性工作,女性須有男性親屬陪伴及穿上遮蓋全身及臉部的罩袍才能外出,違者會被公開羞辱、鞭打。

鄰國巴基斯坦的西北地區,塔利班在2007年控制當地後,同樣禁止女孩接受教育,並炸毀部份女子學校。許多女孩擔心被塔利班攻擊而退學,巴基斯坦女學生馬拉拉(Malala Yousafzai)則把書本藏在披肩下,帶著恐懼前往學校。2009年初,11歲的馬拉拉在日記中描述女孩求學的困境,同時表達巴基斯坦女孩應有接受教育的權利。  

隨著馬拉拉的博客日記被當地報紙刊登,伴隨她名氣而來的,還有恐嚇及威脅。2012年,塔利班武裝分子向坐在校車的她連開三槍,此事獲得全球關注。醫生為她取出子彈後,她前往英國進一步治療,並在2013年康復出院。翌年,17歲的馬拉拉獲得諾貝爾和平獎,以表揚她為巴基斯坦女性爭取教育權利。

Images credit to @National Portrait Gallery: https://bit.ly/3ALjgqK

説回這兩張照片。2018年,英國國家肖像館委託伊朗視覺藝術家及電影製作人Shirin Neshat為馬拉拉創作肖像,她的作品探索伊斯蘭文化中的性別議題,曾憑2009年電影《Women Without Men》獲得威尼斯電影節最佳導演銀獅獎。

在第一張照片中,坐在課桌旁的馬拉拉手中拿著一本打開的書籍,背景則寫滿文字;在另一張作品中裏,Shirin Neshat在馬拉拉的照片寫上一首關於馬拉拉的詩句。照片中的馬拉拉堅定地望向鏡頭,顯示出她的決心,兩張作品均透過文字的元素,凸顯馬拉拉在爭取女性教育權利的貢獻。

Malala Yousafzai is a Pakistani human rights activist for female education. In 2012, she was shot by the Taliban on her school bus because she opposed the Taliban’s ban on girls’ education. The terrorist attack has attracted global attention, and luckily she recovered in the following year. In 2014, the 17-year-old Malala became the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of her fight for education rights for Pakistani women.

In 2018, the National Portrait Gallery commissioned Iranian visual artist and filmmaker Shirin Neshat to create portraits for Malala. In the first photo, Malala sitting at the desk, is holding an open book in her hand, with text in the background. In the other picture, Shirin Neshat writes a poem on Malala’s image. Both photos highlight Malala’s contribution to fighting for women’s education rights with the text.  

Images credit to @National Portrait Gallery: https://bit.ly/3ALjgqK

·歡迎透過PayMe( payme.hsbc/photogstory )支持「顯影」繼續寫作。

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